International Tax Planning & Trust Substitute-Part 2

International Tax Planning and Trust Substitute

Part 2

EWP (Expanded Worldwide Planning) and Trust Substitute

Private Placement Life Insurance (PPLI) in Action

A Stradivarius Violin Plays the EWP Super Trust

 

In Part 1 we spoke about how a beginner’s violin knows nothing of the deep, rich, and more pleasing tone of the Stradivarius violin. We equated the Stradivarius violin with the more sophisticated uses of asset structures that employ PPLI to its full effect. In Part 2 we will learn about the EWP Super Trust, which indeed uses the deep, rich, and more pleasing tone of the Stradivarius violin.

Ironically, the most simple PPLI structure, a Frozen Cash Value (FCV) policy, offers wealthy families the most advanced structuring possibilities available in the world today. A family can place almost any asset class that is located almost anywhere in the world into a FCV policy, and still have it compliant with tax authorities worldwide.

The FCV PPLI structure almost eliminates the concept of cash value in the traditional sense. The growth element of the assets in the policy is paid out as a tax-free death benefit at the death of the insured person(s) in the contract. The amount of the death benefit to qualify as life insurance is just a percent or two of the total assets contributed to the policy, as there must be a risk shifting element to qualify as life insurance under the laws of the jurisdictions who issue the policies.

The maximum the owner of the policy can withdraw is the total value of the premium contributed to the policy. This includes in-kind premiums. The structures that we create for the world’s wealthiest families have sizable premium contributions, frequently in the hundreds of millions and multiple billions. Therefore, if withdrawals from the policy are wished, there is plenty to withdraw. More frequently there are no withdrawals, as these families can accomplish what they wish inside the existing FCV PPLI structure.

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by Michael Malloy, CLU TEP RFC, @ Advanced Financial Solutions, Inc

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International Tax Planning & Trust Substitute

International Tax Planning and Trust Substitute

Part 1

EWP (Expanded Worldwide Planning) and Trust Substitute

Private Placement Life Insurance (PPLI) in Action

The Dangers of Over Reliance on Trusts

The more sophisticated tools gravitate toward the most sophisticated users of these tools. A Stradivarius violin is used by a master violinist and not a beginner. When clients and advisors initially approach us about Private Placement Life Insurance (PPLI), they are confused about its uses.

For the most part, what these clients and advisors have read about are beginning uses of PPLI. They have not explored the upper reaches and more sophisticated uses of asset structures that employ PPLI to its full effect. To keep to our analogy, they have picked up a beginner’s violin, and know nothing of the deep, rich, and more pleasing tone of the Stradivarius violin.

We will now discuss the sixth principle of Expanded Worldwide Planning (EWP), Trust Substitute. We will of course speak of the obvious use of a PPLI asset structure in place of a trust structure in some civil law jurisdictions, but we will also expand our discussion to explore the very nature of trust and how they differ from the sophisticated structures that we use for the world’s wealthiest families. Our discussion will also touch on why a PPLI structure is a far better tool for the client who seeks both maximum privacy, asset protection, and tax efficiency, as well as full compliance with the world’s tax authorities.

Advisors Don’t Know What They Don’t Know………..

 

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by Michael Malloy, CLU TEP RFC, @ Advanced Financial Solutions, Inc

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International Tax Planning & Compliance Simplifier

Part 1

EWP (Expanded Worldwide Planning) and Compliance Simplifier

PPLI Keeps You Out of a Spider Web Structure

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For most people a spider’s web is not a positive image. For this reason Expanded Worldwide Planning (EWP) uses a spider’s web as a symbol of an overly complicated asset structure with multiple entities and a confusing array of boxes and arrows. In its complexity, what we call a Spider Web Structure might look impressive to some, but the end result is summarized in three words: overcomplication, confusion, and uncertainty. Later on we will give you a detailed description of a Spider Web Structure.

We propose an alternative asset structure that we call an EWP Structure.

At the heart of an EWP Structure is a Private Placement Life Insurance (PPLI) policy which was born out of the necessity to achieve greater tax efficiency, privacy, and asset protection in one low cost structure with institutional pricing. A PPLI structure is made possible through the laws and regulations of life insurance. A much more stable and straightforward body of law than the more politicized tax laws and regulations worldwide.

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by Michael Malloy, CLU TEP RFC, @ Advanced Financial Solutions, Inc

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International Tax Planning & Succession Planning-Part 2

EWP, (Expanded Worldwide Planning) and Succession Planning

Part 2

Private Placement Life Insurance (PPLI) in Action

PPLI: The Best Tool for the Job—Part 2

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A PPLI policy is not a uniquely civil-or common-law creation. Its treatment in law is more uniform than planning solely with entities like trust, foundations, and LLCs. The unique design of a PPLI policy can greatly assist in a move between civil-and common-law jurisdictions.

This can be done without the requirement of a will or trust. Upon death of the insured person(s), the value of the PPLI policy plus any death benefit is paid directly to the beneficiaries listed in the policy, and separate from probate.

If a PPLI policy is held by an entity, such as a trust, that is compliant in the beneficiary’s country of residence, tax deferral and investment flexibility can still be preserved, even if the trust is disregarded as a foreign entity.

Gift and estate planning for life policies frequently involves establishment of a specially structured insurance trust for the benefit of a spouse and/or children and descendants. The trust acquires the policy with the premiums being contributed to the trust by the settlor/insured. In this manner, the death benefit would be paid to the trust free of estate taxes rather than going outright to the surviving family members after the payment of estate taxes.

PPLI policies also could invest in PFICs without creating adverse tax consequences. From a US perspective, US persons should generally be aware that most non-US collective investment vehicles will be classified as PFICs for US purposes and subject to adverse tax charges upon generating income and gains.

Unwelcomed Complexities by Country

The laws of succession and inheritance vary widely by country. By reviewing the laws of France, China, Russia, and Saudi Arabia, we give you a sampling of the complications faced by wealthy international families throughout the world. Image a family that might have family members and assets in several of these countries, and the daunting task of settling their estate.

France

Before the Napoleonic Code, France did not have a single set of laws; law consisted mainly of local customs, which had sometimes been officially compiled in “custumals” (coutumes), notably the Custom of Paris. There were also exemptions, privileges, and special charters granted by the kings or other feudal lords. During the Revolution, the last vestiges of feudalism were abolished.

France’s Napoleonic code dictates how your assets must be distributed on your death. The key points are:

  • For French residents, succession law applies to worldwide assets (excluding real estate outside France).
  • For non-residents, French real estate is subject to the succession law rules.
  • Assets do not automatically pass in accordance with your will.
  • Children are protected heirs, inheriting up to 75% of your estate.
  • Spouses are not automatically protected.
  • You can use the EU succession regulations, termed Brussels IV, to opt for the succession law of your nationality instead of French law.

Brussels IV has been in place since August 17, 2015. Its intention was to simplify issues relating to succession across the EU. The objective of Brussels IV is to ensure that only one country’s laws apply to the deceased’s estate. The laws of the country in which a person is habitually resident at their death will apply to them unless they have made a declaration during their lifetime.

Brussels IV gives residents in EU countries (with the exception of the UK, Denmark and Ireland) a single set of rules which govern the jurisdiction and applicable law in succession law matters. The new rules look primarily to the deceased’s place of habitual residence, but an individual may elect that his succession should be governed by the law of his nationality (whether or not he is a national of an EU member state). The new rules also introduced a European Certificate of Succession, aimed at facilitating the administration of cross-border estates.

China

Unlike common law countries, China possesses few legal instruments for processing a solid estate plan. But because China does not levy estate or inheritance tax, nor does it collect a gift tax, there is less demand for estate planning, which tends to focus on tax savings. However, family business succession is looming large in China, with many first generation entrepreneurs approaching retirement.

Under Chinese inheritance law, when a valid will is made, it is generally respected. So these estates pass to the beneficiaries designated in the will. When a person dies without having a valid will in place, the estate passes to heirs under the statutory succession rules.

China has a limited forced heirship regime under which dependents of the deceased are entitled to succession to the extent that they otherwise cannot support themselves, for example, those who are unable to work and have no source of income. As such, a family trust may be liable to forced heirship claims against trust assets.

Under the Chinese statutory succession rules, the first half of the estate is distributed to the spouse of the deceased as community property. The rest is distributed to the spouse, the parents and the children of the deceased in equal shares. The limited forced heirship regime cannot be avoided. All the assets, including those received by beneficiaries in other jurisdictions, are taken into account for the forced heirship regime.

For statutory succession purposes, the succession rules of the habitual residence of the deceased at the time of their death will apply, unless the asset is a real estate located in China where the Chinese succession rules will automatically apply. This can be avoided by making a will by the foreign national.

In the absence of a will, Chinese statuary succession rules apply to the deceased’s real estate in China even if the deceased is a foreign national. Chinese laws do not recognize the doctrine of renvoi. By invoking renvoi, the court could rule that the law of another country would be the most appropriate law to apply in this case.

There are no other taxes on death or lifetime gifts unless the gifts would be deemed as a transfer of assets, for example, gifts of shares or real estate between non-family members, in which case the individual income tax on deemed gains will be imposed on the transferor.

Russia

Russian inheritance laws cover everyone who is domiciled (i.e., has his or her usual place of living, but not necessarily his or her nationality) in the Russian Federation, and also covers everyone including foreigners who own property in the Russian Federation.

Minor and disabled children of any deceased person domiciled in Russia, disabled spouse and parents, and any disabled dependants of the deceased must inherit at least one-half of the share each of them is entitled to inherit by law, irrespective of any testamentary provisions.

There are two types of inheritance: testamentary inheritance (when there is a will of a deceased) and intestate inheritance (in the absence of a will of a deceased and in other statutory cases). The deceased’s estate incorporates the items and other property the deceased owned as of the date of the opening of the inheritance, including property rights and liabilities. Rights and liabilities inseparable from the personality of the deceased (e.g., rights to alimony), personal incorporeal rights and other intangible assets are not included in the estate.

If no provisions are made in prospect of death, a complex statutory order of intestate inheritance is applied to all persons covered by Russian inheritance law. The heirs-in-law (individuals only) include children of the deceased, his or her spouse and parents, brothers and sisters, other relatives and disabled dependants of the deceased.

The tax on the assets transferred through inheritance or donation that previously existed, was abolished effective January 2006. Alongside the abolishment of inheritance and gift tax, personal income tax applies in certain instances where individuals receive gifts.

In certain cases, individuals receiving income through inheritance may also be subject to personal income tax as a regular taxable income. There is no inheritance tax in Russia. There is no gift tax in Russia, although in certain cases personal income tax may be levied. There is no real estate transfer tax in Russia, although in certain cases personal income tax may be levied. There is no net wealth tax in Russia.

Russian tax residents are taxable in Russia on their worldwide income, generally, at a 13% tax rate (including, but not limited to, gifts in various forms and inheritance in special cases). For some types of income, such as dividends and material benefit, different tax rates are applied. Russian tax nonresidents are taxable only on their Russian source of income at a 30% tax rate on most types of taxable income (including, but not limited to, income earned in Russia).

There are currently no estate tax treaties between the Russian Federation and other countries.

Saudi Arabia

To understand the basis for Islamic inheritance law, you will need to be familiar with inheritance laws in Arabia pre-Islam. The sole inheritance was given to the asaba (male relatives) of the deceased. The surviving male relatives inherited in order of family position; the son superseded the father, the father superseded the uncles and so on.

Islam has kept the position of the male inheritance principals, but with slight modifications to give women more security. Pre-Islam men inherited, but were not required to care for the females in their families with the inheritance; Islam encourages the opposite. In Islamic Inheritance, the male inherits twice that of the female, but is encouraged to care for the single women in his family from it.

Inheritance between non-Muslims is governed by the will, which has to be registered with the Shariah Court, or witnessed by two adult Muslims. Non-Muslims cannot normally inherit from Muslims and vice versa, but if there is a will which applies to less than 30% of the estate, that portion of the estate can be transmitted across religious lines. There are no inheritance taxes in Saudi Arabia.

Saudi Arabia is governed by Shariah Law, which is a religious law that is based on the Quran and the teachings and practices of the Prophet Mohammed (the Sunna). It was borne out of the Islamic tradition governing all aspects of life. It regulates all of human activity, national and international, public and private, criminal and civil and is applied by courts.

Ultimately, Shariah Law has its own standards in resolving and enforcing sanctions on various cases. As such, in cases of estate settlement, inheritance and wills, certain rules apply. These cases take into consideration the allocation and distribution of shares/properties specified by the defendant or deceased to his family, company and others, following the rules of Shariah Law.

With regard to the law of inheritance, the Quran specifies that fixed portions of the deceased’s estate must be left to the so-called “Quranic heirs”. Generally, female heirs receive half the portion of male heirs. A Sunni Muslim can bequeath a maximum of a third of his property to non-Quranic heirs. The residue is divided between agnatic heirs.

Conclusion

Wealthy families frequently hold second passports, and have homes in foreign countries. Over time, family events like death, separation, and remarriage complicate estate plans. All of these factors can dissipate family assets.

Life insurance is recognized in almost every country worldwide as a safe, straightforward, and simple wealth transfer vehicle. The use of PPLI only adds to the benefits, since in a properly structured PPLI policy almost any asset can be held.

A PPLI policy passes assets directly to intended beneficiaries and keeps family wealth intact, giving families the maximum amount of privacy, asset protection, and tax efficiency. Contact us today to find out how your family can benefit from this unique blend of life insurance and asset structuring.

by Michael Malloy, CLU TEP RFC, @ Advanced Financial Solutions, Inc

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Expanded Worldwide Planning-EWP and Asset Protection

Private Placement Life Insurance (PPLI) in Action

The EWP Da Vinci Code–Part 1

by Michael Malloy CLU TEP RFC

 

The universality of Expanded Worldwide Planning (EWP) is not to be denied. This is objectified by Wikipedia. In the first sentence of their page on International Tax Planning, Expanded Worldwide Planning (EWP) is featured.

We are taking a cue from Wikipedia. Over the next few weeks, we will feature one of the six principles of Expanded Worldwide Planning (EWP). The six principles are: privacy, asset protection, tax shield, succession planning, compliance simplifier, and trust substitute.

The EWP Da Vinci Code

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by Michael Malloy, CLU TEP RFC, @ Advanced Financial Solutions, Inc

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Q & A – Ancient Wisdom and PPLI

Questions and Answers from the book “The Wit and Wisdom of Professor PPLI: How to Achieve Exceptional Asset Structuring with Private Placement Life Insurance”

~ by Michael Malloy, CLU, TEP

 

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Socrates and King Lear Teach Us a Lesson

Ancient Wisdom and PPLI

Section 3, Part 4

In this Part of the book, Socrates and Shakespeare’s King Lear are mentioned. Professor PPLI, please tell us more about how they pertain to PPLI?

In this Part of the book, we used the death of Socrates and the wanderings of King Lear late in his life as examples of highly charged types of exile. Socrates was put to death by state officials in Athens. King Lear was left to wander in his own country after political intrigue forced him out.

Wealthy families are not immune to dramatic forms of exile, sometimes being forced to flee their own country for political and economic reasons. At Advanced Financial Solutions, Inc., our goal is to structure your assets into a well-organized arrangement that gives you the stability to withstand disruptive cross border changes.

This is accomplished through the conservative vehicle of life insurance that is recognized in almost all jurisdictions throughout the world as a standard financial planning vehicle. Privacy, asset protection, and tax efficiency are the hallmarks of the structures that we provide for wealthy families throughout the world.

Profession PPLI, how does Socrates’s philosophy teach you to construct better PPLI international asset structures?

Achieving the ideal international asset structure requires us to be careful listeners. We zealously guard against presenting you with a preconceived plan of our own making. In the end, the plan must be a combination of your aims and desires and our knowledge of the laws and regulations that are pertinent to the plan. What worked for one family may not be a fit for you, even though the outward facts are similar.

How can we be certain that we adhere to careful listening? One method is to follow Socrates’s famous quote: “I only know that I know nothing.” Garth Kemerling’s insightful commentary in the Great Philosophers series is helpful here:

“It is one thing to state one’s opinion of how things are and should be. Powerful institutions such as religions and political systems are built upon such dogmas and the demands that others abide by them. Socrates, on the other hand, started from a position of ignorance and sought the truth. In the end. He has no dogmatic program for us to follow, just a method for seeking the truth for ourselves, without any guarantee that we will find it. Philosophy as practiced by Socrates is an open system.”

Professor PPLI, why would a citizen of a country wish to purchase a life insurance policy from a company outside the borders of their country?

The majority of jurisdictions in the world allow their citizens to purchase life insurance from companies outside their borders. PPLI serves this need very well.

For reasons to purchase a foreign life insurance policy, you need look no further than the six principles of Expanded Worldwide Planning (EWP):

  • Privacy
  • Asset protection
  • Succession Planning
  • Tax Shield
  • Compliance simplifier
  • Trust substitute

Usually several, if not the majority of these six principles, are not available in your own country. Why restrict your international asset planning to just the meager offerings that are available. Expand your vision to include the full palette of EWP. We quote the definitions of the six principles from the Wikipedia page, “International Tax Planning:”

Privacy

EWP gives privacy and compliance with tax laws. It also enhances protection from data breach and strengthens family security. EWP allows for a tax compliant system that still respects basic rights of privacy. EWP addresses the concerns of law firms and international planners about some aspects of CRS related to their clients’ privacy. EWP assists with the privacy and welfare of families by protecting their financial records and keeping them in compliance with tax regulations.

Asset protection

EWP protects assets with segregated account legislation by using the benefits of life insurance. This structure uses asset protection laws in the jurisdictions of residence to shield these assets from creditors’ claims. A trust with its own asset protection provisions can still receive additional protection with the policy.

Succession planning

EWP includes transfers of assets without forced heirship rules directly to beneficiaries using a controlled and orderly plan. This element of EWP provides a wealth holder a method to enact an estate plan according to his/her wishes without complying forced heirship rules in the home country. This plan must be coordinated with all the aspects of a properly structured PPLI policy together with other elements of a wealth owner’s financial and legal planning.

Tax shield

EWP adds tax deferral, income, estate tax benefits and dynasty tax planning opportunities. Assets held in a life insurance contract are considered tax-deferred in most jurisdictions throughout the world. Likewise, PPLI policies that are properly constructed shield the assets from all taxes. In most cases, upon the death of the insured, benefits are paid as a tax free death benefit.

Compliance simplifier

EWP adds ease of reporting to tax authorities and administration of assets, commercial substance to structures. In addition, the insurance company is considered the beneficial owner of the assets. This approach greatly simplifies reporting obligations to tax authorizes because assets in the policy are held in segregated accounts and can be spread over multiple jurisdictions worldwide.

Trust substitute

EWP creates a viable structure under specific insurance regulations for civil law jurisdictions. It also creates a new role for commercial trust companies. In most civil law jurisdictions, trusts are poorly acknowledged and trust law is not well developed. As a result, companies with foreign trusts in these civil law jurisdictions, face obstacles.

Please let us know how we can put these six principles of EWP to work for you. Contact us for a no-charge initial consultation that will be tailored to your own individual aims and desires.

 

by Michael Malloy, CLU TEP RFC, @ Advanced Financial Solutions, Inc

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Q & A – Nothing Is Impossible

Questions and Answers from the book “The Wit and Wisdom of Professor PPLI: How to Achieve Exceptional Asset Structuring with Private Placement Life Insurance”

~ by Michael Malloy, CLU, TEP RFC

 

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Nothing Is Impossible

PPLI: Under Higher Laws

 Section 3, Part 3

 

Professor PPLI, attitudes toward a subject are a powerful force in how people perceive the subject. These attitudes are also sometimes hard to change. How does this relate to PPLI?

If you study the history of science, you can readily see how once a long held belief or attitude is changed, it becomes a new paradigm that awaits another future paradigm shift. What was thought impossible becomes possible.

A similar phenomenon exists in sports with world records. Take Roger Bannister breaking the four minute mile record. In a sense, once the barrier is broken, others are given permission to accomplish the same feat. Again, the impossible becomes possible.

In the world of PPLI, I see a paradigm shift coming for professional trustees’ attitudes towards PPLI asset structuring. Professional trustees can be distrustful at first hearing of these structures, because they think they will lose control of the assets. Exactly the opposite is the case.

When assets are placed in a PPLI structure, the insurance company takes over the administration of these assets, but leaves the trustee in ultimate control. This relieves the trustee of many routine tasks, but the trustee retains their role as the ultimate decision maker, since they are the owner of the policy. They are even free to switch insurance companies, if the administration of the assets is not to their liking.

In a Wealthmanagement.com article, “Private Placement Life Insurance Primer, Recent tax law changes make for a particularly interesting time to explore PPLI,” Brian Gartner and Matthew Phillips explain why some trustees are particularly attracted to PPLI.

“Trustees are attracted to PPLI in the context of multi-generational trust planning for three main reasons: (1) assets within a trust allocated through PPLI grow on an income tax-deferred basis; (2) the trustee can make income tax-free distributions to trust beneficiaries from PPLI without having to consider the income tax consequences of liquidating assets; and (3) the trust will eventually receive an income tax-free insurance benefit, which will serve to effectively step-up the basis of the assets within the trust that are allocated through PPLI.”

Lastly, assets within a PPLI structure are frequently held for the long term, usually until the death of the insured person, thus, the trustee can be assured of controlling the assets for a long time period.

The title of this section is “Nothing Is Impossible.” This is a big statement. What relevance does this have to PPLI?

To solve issues in the world of international asset structuring, it is sometimes necessary to ask the simple, yet sometimes profound, questions that come from children: why is the sky blue? And where was I before I was born?

At Advanced Financial Solutions, Inc., we ask ourselves one simple question at the beginning of each client engagement:

How can we achieve the maximum amount of tax efficiency, asset protection, and privacy for this family?

Our picture in the book is telling for the answer to this question. Nobody has told the mountain goats in this picture that what they are doing is extremely dangerous and they can fall to their peril at any point.

Our task at Advanced Financial Solutions, Inc. is not so dramatic, but we do endeavor to achieve what might seem impossible by conventional structuring methods. How do we accomplish this? By engaging you with simple questions that bring about the answer to the important question posited above.

Ironically, our international PPLI structuring techniques are usually far more conservative than the complex trust structures that clients frequently bring us to review. Sometimes they have spent weeks pondering over this overly complex structure and still do not understand them.

We treat each of our cases as a blank canvas that confronts each painter at the beginning of a painting project. Our goal is to paint, read structure, a picture that gives a family all they desire in the realm of tax efficiency, asset protection, and privacy.

Professor PPLI, how is PPLI similar to the popular phrase, “to hide something in plain sight?”

The key to this question lies in two words–life insurance. Most all life insurance policies in most jurisdictions throughout the world offer all or some of these benefits:

  • Tax-deferred growth of internal cash value
  • Tax-free death benefit
  • No capital gains taxes
  • No income taxes
  • Ability to access Cash Value through tax-free loans
  • Ability to manage or mitigate estate taxes

PPLI now adds these benefits:

  • Invest in almost any asset class
  • Increased asset protection as insurance company becomes beneficial owner of assets in the policy
  • Simplified reporting and privacy as only total cash value is reported
  • Policy can hold CFC’s and PFIC assets on a tax-deferred basis
  • Excellent vehicle to hold real estate
  • Provided a stable, globally recognized structure for tax authorities

Most attorneys, asset managers, trustees, and accountants have received no formal education in PPLI international asset structuring, and their professional societies have scant knowledge on the subject. After they drop their frequent preconceived prejudices against life insurance, and study the subject of variable life insurance, and the tax code that supports it, they usually have two reactions.

One, is they are astounded that they have not been using this simple and conservative method from the beginning of their practice. Or, two, they think it is too good to be true and reject it, because it does not conform to the methods that most of their peers use in the field of international asset structuring.

At Advanced Financial Solutions, Inc. we encourage you to take the path of the first reaction. To that end, we appreciate your questions and comments. Please give us your thoughts on PPLI international asset structuring.

 

by Michael Malloy, CLU TEP RFC, @ Advanced Financial Solutions, Inc

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Q & A – How Can Nothing Exist?

Questions and Answers from the book “The Wit and Wisdom of Professor PPLI: How to Achieve Exceptional Asset Structuring with Private Placement Life Insurance”

~ by Michael Malloy, CLU TEP RFC

 

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How Can Nothing Exist?

The Zen of PPLI

Section 3, Part 2

Professor PPLI, in this Part of the book, you compare the contradiction of the meaning of the word nothing to how PPLI is incorrectly perceived by some people. Please tell us more.

 The contradiction arises, in part, because of a lack of knowledge about the origins of PPLI, and how it was initially conceived. PPLI was born in the U.S. in the 1980s to allow top executives at major corporations the ability to invest in multiple asset classes within their pension plans. In the 1990s, it was adopted by wealthy families to fulfill the same need, especially for international families with assets in several jurisdictions throughout the world.

The original use of PPLI very soon spawned a retail version, the Variable Universal Life (VUL) insurance policy. Compared to the original, open architecture version of PPLI described above, the retail version of the VUL can be described as life insurance with a selection of mutual funds from which the client chooses. The choice ideally corresponds to the risk tolerance of the policyowner.

All VUL insurance policies provide tax deferral.  The retail version and the original version from the 1980s, which we will call International PPLI. Whatever the asset inside the policy, be it a mutual fund, stock portfolio, yacht, operating business, or alternative investment, there is tax deferral.

Any gain on these assets passes as a tax-free death benefit to the designated beneficiary on the policy. Depending on the policy design, this gain can be accessed through policy loans. The principal, or original value of these assets, can be withdrawn from the policy too. The type of withdrawal is determined by the policy design that the policyowner chooses.

For those who are just familiar with the retail version of the VUL, and the slightly expanded asset offering of what is mostly marketed as PPLI in the U.S., the structuring possibilities of the true International PPLI seem like a contradiction. Much like one of the definitions of the word nothing, “something that does not exist.” It does not exist for them, because they have not taken the time and energy to explore the many structuring possibilities of International PPLI.

Professor PPLI, your comments in the first question remind me of the famous quote by Benjamin Franklin, “Our new Constitution is now established, and has an appearance that promises permanency; but in this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes.” How does  PPLI addresses both death and taxes.

Like most aspects of PPLI, death and taxes are dealt with in a bespoke manner. The death benefit can be tailored to the estate planning needs of the family. Frequently, policies are designed with the least death benefit possible, as the policy serves more as asset structuring tool than as a vehicle to pass a death benefit to the next generation.

The timing of the liquidity event that the death benefit produces can also be somewhat calculated. PPLI policies support multiple insured lives. Also, it is possible to insure a younger family member, if the family wishes the liquidity event to be extended, and an older family member, if the death benefit is needed at an earlier date.

The topic of the tax aspects of PPLI is a large one. As an overview, here is a quote from the Tax Management International Journal by members of the

Giordani, Swanger, Ripp & Phillips law firm of Austin, Texas:

“Life insurance is a powerful planning tool due to its favorable treatment under the Code. While under §61(a)(10), gross income includes income from life insurance and endowment contracts, other Code sections — as discussed below — exclude substantial life insurance–related sums from the gross income of policyholders and beneficiaries alike.”

The favorable tax treatment mentioned above in the U.S. tax code is, for the most part, repeated in tax codes of most jurisdictions throughout the world.

Depending on the policy design and assets in the policy, this is a short list of possible tax advantages of using a PPLI policy:

–allow a tax-favored CFC investment;

–eliminate FIRPTA withholding on a U.S. real estate investment;

–avoid subpart F unfavorable tax issues;

–eliminate tax on dividend income;

–pass assets to future generations tax-free;

–eliminate capital gain and income tax;

–eliminate estate tax.

Particularly in art, Zen Buddhism is known for its simplicity. A picture of a famous Zen rock garden is shown in this Part. Professor PPLI, tell us how this relates to PPLI.

 The moving parts of asset structuring are greatly reduced for international families when they employ International PPLI. The three elements of any type of life insurance policy are the same for a PPLI policy: owner, insured, and beneficiary. When assets are placed in a policy, they become the cash value of the policy. The insurance company is now the beneficial owner of these assets–no matter what asset class or jurisdiction of the asset.

If there is a tax reporting obligation for the policy, what is reported is just one number. This one number is the total of the cash value of the policy, not any of the individual assets. Even though this is the situation for tax reporting, the assets are held by the insurance company in separate accounts in the name of the policyowner.

These assets are not part of the general account assets of the insurance company. If the company was to be liquidated or become insolvent, the assets would be transferred back to the policyowner.  This turns complexity into simplicity, similar to Zen art.

You might think that an asset structure that can deliver the six principles of EWP would be complex. Let us review the six principles: privacy, asset protection, tax shield, succession planning, compliance simplifier, and trust substitute.

The internal structure inside the policy can become somewhat complex due to the asset classes and jurisdictions involved, but it does add complexity for the international family, as the insurance company takes over the administration of these assets. This also makes life easier for the trustee of the assets. The trustee, as policyowner, still has the ultimate authority, but is relieved of much of the daily administrative functions by the insurance company. Complexity has become simplicity.

We invite you to explore the details of PPLI. Call Advanced Financial Solutions, Inc. today! We offer a no-charge initial consultation.

 

by Michael Malloy, CLU TEP RFC, @ Advanced Financial Solutions, Inc

Michael Malloy-CLU-TEP

 

 

 

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Q & A – PPLI for Wealthy International Families

Questions and Answers from the book “The Wit and Wisdom of Professor PPLI: How to Achieve Exceptional Asset Structuring with Private Placement Life Insurance”

~ by Michael Malloy, CLU TEP RFC

 

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PPLI for Wealthy International Families

– Including Wealthy U.S. Families

PPLI’s Beautiful Architecture

 Part 3

Professor PPLI, in this Part we have a discussion of light and dark from different perspectives. How can this be relevant to PPLI asset structuring?

Imagine a typical flowchart that is used to depict a PPLI asset structure. On most flowcharts of this type, the PPLI policy box is located in the middle.  Usually the owner, most often a trust, is above the PPLI policy box, and below are the various assets and holding companies necessary to complete the structure.

Let us now hear from physicist, Julian Scudder

“Stars form light as a byproduct of the incredible pressures at their centers…. New stars only unveil themselves to our eyes by using the light they give off to burn away the dust and gas that hid them in darkness.”

Now back to our flowchart. Think of the PPLI policy box as a star at the center of the asset structure. The pressure in our analogy is the well-established insurance laws and regulations throughout the world which make these structures possible.

 This PPLI policy box, now a newly formed star, gives off light to the other elements of the structure like the trust, assets, and beneficiaries so they can shine forth. All the elements then have the light they need to make the entire structure successful. This brings to mind the subtitle of our Part, PPLI’s Beautiful Architecture.

Professor PPLI, why did you include U.S. families in the title along with international families? Aren’t there domestic U.S. policies that can serve their needs?

If all a family’s assets are located in the U.S., they might consider using a U.S. product, but most often this would not work if they had unusual asset classes. Domestic U.S. PPLI companies structure their products as extensions of the standard retail Variable Universal Life products.

In most cases, a family is much better off using an offshore insurance company with a 953(d) election. Not only are fees lower, but the entire structure will put most families closer to their ultimate goal–to achieve the six elements of Expanded Worldwide Planning (EWP): privacy, asset protection, tax shield, succession planning, compliance simplifier, and trust substitute.

In our first answer we made an analogy between PPLI and the physical aspects of a star as it relates to light. Many advisors would find this analogy far fetch as most international tax advisors have little or no knowledge of the asset structuring possibilities of PPLI. Professor PPLI, please expand on this fact for us.

Quite true indeed. Attorneys, trust officers, and accountants are not offered any courses in PPLI asset structuring in their formal education, so they must encounter this outstanding tool later in their practices. Even when they do, they frequently reject it, because they are unaware of this variety of life insurance and equate PPLI with retail products.

This is not helped in the U.S. where a few major insurance companies do offer PPLI, but it is more of an extension of their retail products, as we mentioned in the second answer.

It takes a creative partnership between the various disciplines involved in a PPLI structure to accomplish the magic. When attorneys, asset managers, trust officers, accountants, and insurance advisors truly understand the dynamic asset structuring elements of PPLI, they can ride the exciting wave of what we call in the book the Unifying Factor.

Currently, when the very concept of wealth seems under attack from political parties, governments hungry for tax dollars, and worldwide governing bodies like the OECD, why not embrace the Unifying Factor. Families then can avail themselves of the six principles of Expanded Worldwide Planning (EWP) that we mentioned earlier. At Advanced Financial Solutions Inc., we endeavor to secure the Unifying Factor for each of our clients.

 

by Michael Malloy, CLU TEP RFC, @ Advanced Financial Solutions, Inc

Michael Malloy-CLU-TEP

 

 

 

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Q & A- Transformation Abounds

Questions and Answers  from the book “The Wit and Wisdom of Professor PPLI: How to Achieve Exceptional Asset Structuring with Private Placement Life Insurance”

~ by Michael Malloy, CLU TEP RFC

Get the book now!

See original article

 

Transformation Abounds 

Professor PPLI and the Caterpillar

Section 1, Part 5

Professor PPLI, we know the many issues that PPLI can solve for wealthy families today, but how did this begin? What are the origins of PPLI?

PPLI began in the 1980s in the United States. It was principally used to structure benefits for senior executives at major corporations. It allowed these executives to customize their investments and provide greater benefits than with the standard plans available.

In the early 1990s, PPLI was adopted by wealthy individuals. Attorneys and other advisors saw that PPLI could be a valuable tool in planning for wealthy clients given all the advantages of life insurance. PPLI allows planners to incorporate all of the key elements of Expanded Worldwide Planning (EWP) into one coherent structure: privacy, asset protection, tax shield, succession planning, compliance simplifier, and trust substitute.

In the mid-1990s, major companies entered the PPLI market. Insurance companies saw the marketing opportunities inherent in PPLI, and we see companies being formed in tax friendly jurisdictions like Bermuda and Barbados. Presently, PPLI is seen as a sophisticated asset structuring tool, and a potent planning technique in the hands of advisors throughout the world.

Professor PPLI, please tell us more about how PPLI transforms assets once they are in the policy structure.

Much like the transformation of a caterpillar into a butterfly, when assets are put into a properly structured policy, the insurance company becomes the beneficial owner of the assets. The owner of the policy, usually a trust, uses the assets for the benefit of the wealthowner, even though there are some restrictions due to the investor control regulations for those clients with a connection to the U.S. For clients who have a connection to the U.S., they must comply with the investor control and diversification regulations.

In today’s world of news leaks and fake news, clients worldwide are seeking legitimate privacy in their financial affairs. In recent years, this has been eroded. Interestingly enough, it is part of the Founding Fathers’ vision of the U.S., and is part of the EU’s founding documents. This legitimate privacy can be achieved by using a U.S. trust situated in certain jurisdictions coupled with a properly structured PPLI policy.

In the environment of global taxation that we have today, what gives PPLI a distinct advantage over other methods of asset structuring?

This advantage can be summarized in two words: life insurance. Life insurance is recognized the world over as a societal benefit, and in most jurisdictions has built-in tax advantages. Because of this we begin the structuring process for wealthy families with a conservative tool, not some new construct recently discovered in the tax code.

For advisors who only use life insurance as a method of introducing liquidity into an illiquid estate, for instance, one that holds mostly real estate, it is a learning process to recognize that a properly structured policy can hold almost any asset that a trust company can have in custody. Having the assets in a policy that is owned by a trust gives the wealthowner distinct advantages that cannot be achieved by a trust alone.

by Michael Malloy, CLU TEP RFC, @ Advanced Financial Solutions, Inc

Michael Malloy-CLU-TEP

 

 

 

#michaelmalloy #PPLI #privateplacement #lifeinsurance #advancedfinancialsolutions